Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Happened in Britain During the Great Depression

What Happened in Britain During the Great Depression? It is easy to hear â€Å"Great Depression† and immediately think only the United States. The reason for this is that the Great Depression began in United States, but the effects were far from being isolated to the United States. Though Britain was effected in many ways by the Great depression, I believe that the greatest overall effect of the Great Depression on Britain was a high and unrelenting unemployment rate. The recurring unemployment of at times, more than a million British citizens had several huge impacts on British life. But before I get to those, let us look at some background history of the Great Depression. In Britain, the first effects of the Great Depression were†¦show more content†¦The demolition of the shipyard devastated Jarrow. Nearly all the workers of Jarrow were unemployed and most could not afford to pick up and move to a different job. This series of events set in motion one of the most visible protests against unemployment in Brittan during the Great Depression. The Jarrow March, Also called the Jarrow Crusade. The Jarrow March began in October 1936. Over 200 men set out for London carrying a petition. (The London Evening Chronicle) This Petition was a plea for Parliment to provide places for the townspeople of Jarrow to work. Some may look at this march and see 200 angry men yelling for money and employment, but in truth the Jarrow March was nothing of the kind. The march was a desperate cry for help from an entire town which had been stripped of its livelihood. On their way to London, the Jarrow marchers were hit hard when the Ministry of Labor cancelled all unemployment assistance for the wives and dependents of the marchers. The reason behind the cancellation was that the marchers were no longer in residence with their wives and dependents, therefore, the dependents were no longer qualified for unemployment assistance (Western Daily press). The reaction of the Jarrow marchers showed their determination. They did not turn back immediately to regain the unemployment assistance for their families, instead they cast aside their personal desires and pressed on for the greater good of Jarrow.Show MoreRelatedThe Effect of the Great Depression Worldwide765 Words   |  3 PagesWhat was the world’s greatest economic disaster and left millions of citizens unemployed for years? The Great Depression was a major economic disaster which left the people of the world shocked. Many countries were already left in a bad position due to the effect of World War I. Countries that bought and sold on the international market were affected. The United Kingdom, France, and Germany were just a few of the affected countries that had a difficult time getting their country back to great economicRead MoreWorld War II And Its Impact On The World1593 Words   |  7 PagesWhat first comes to mind when you hear about World War II? Is it how it greatly affected different societies or how scary it is to think that a terrorist like Hitler gained so much power over so many countries? Well, the real question that we should be really thinking and learning about is what is World War II about? In general, World War II was a war that involved many countries that started after the First World War. It started in 1939 and ended during 1945. It was a very important war to allRead MoreIsolationism vs. International Cooperation Essay944 Words   |  4 Pagescontrasted one another. On one hand you have isolationism, Lassie Faire and a lack of global pers pective. On the other hand you have international cooperation and what has been termed â€Å"war economies†. The failure of one seems to have cultivated the other as a response. Ultra nationalism, racial imperialism and antisocialism brought about great atrocities and failures both politically and morally. In response we have, not once, but twice, seen the rise of international cooperation to counter NationalisticRead MoreHow Responsible Was Hitler for the Outbreak of Ww21219 Words   |  5 Pageswhich included the rearmament of Germany, his Lebensraum policy where he wanted to take over neighboring lands and gain more territory for Germany and his disrespect to the treaties he made. While Hitler was a great cause for World War 2, he was not the sole reason. The Great Depression, the weak leaders of the League of Nations and their appeasement policies, the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles and Stalin s decision not to do anything. One of the major terms of the Treaty of VersaillesRead MoreWhat Was The Interwar Period?1703 Words   |  7 Pagesconcepts and opinions could be formed about what happened then. Historians may look back on the time period with various opinions and theories on what happened as well as why it occurred. However, if you were to look back and asked what would be the most interesting points. You would have to break it down as such: World War I broke out over the sectionalism and nationalism that was pretty prevalent during the time as well as the alliances that were built during the time period reflected the values andRead MoreThe Great Depression : A Economic Catastrophe Of All Times1489 Words   |  6 PagesThe great depression has been considered the biggest economic catastrophe of all times, it was a crisis that affected every individual in the United States and it extended to other countries in the globe. The unemployment rate grew from 5 million of people to 13 million from 1929 t o 1930. Little kids were put into headwork in order to support their families, it was a period of desperation and starvation that left a mark in American history. So what open the doors to this economic crisis? We willRead MoreHerbert Hoover : The First President Of The United States996 Words   |  4 Pagesthe United States, Herbert Hoover, impacted his time and the future for everyone. Herbert Hoover was elected president in 1928. One year later, in 1929, the stock market crashed. This awful event is what many people remember him by and often blame him for. But before this, he was recognized for his great humanitarian work. He started his own engineering business after graduating college. Working at an engineering firm in San Francisco California, Hoover made partners in a different company and andRead MoreThe Economics Of The Great Depression1638 Words   |  7 PagesEconomics of the Great Depression Tyler Brooks 4/19/2015 The great Depression was the worst and longest economic decline experienced by the industrialized western world. Economic cycles are continuous loops of periods of business expansion followed by business contraction. This is the way economics has always been in the industrialized world and extended periods of contraction was something people had seen before. However, the Great Depression was something peopleRead MoreThe Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (the Standard of Living Debate) and the Free Trade Era in Europe.1542 Words   |  7 PagesLecture 11: The Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (The Standard of Living Debate) and the Free Trade Era in Europe. I. The Consequences of the Industrial Revolution: The Standard of Living Debate. What happened to living standards during the Industrial Revolution? From today’s perspective, over 200 years later, most people would say that industrialization has raised living standards dramatically from those that prevailed in the 1700s. In fact, there is general agreementRead MoreThe Great Depression Essay1390 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: The world had faced two main economic problems. The first one was the Great Depression in the early of 20th Century. The second was the recent international financial crisis in 2008. The United States and Europe suffered severely for a long time from the great depression. The great depression was a great step and changed completely the economic policy making and the economic thoughts. It was not only an economic situation bit it was also miserable making, made people more attention

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Walt Disney Set the Stage for Great Film Making Essay...

â€Å"All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them†, said by Walt Disney himself (â€Å"Walt Disney Quotes†). Disney had a big imagination followed with big goals. As always in the entertainment business, there are going to be people competing to tear each other down, but Walt Disney kept his focus and determination to take on great things. All it took was one person with a strong passion for entertainment to set the stage for filmmaking long after he was gone. Walt Disney came from an Anglo-Irish family that immigrated to Canada just before the potato famine (â€Å"Walt Disney Interviewed by Fletcher Markle†). On December 5, 1901, Elias and Flora Disney welcomed their fourth son into their home in Chicago, Illinois. When Walter†¦show more content†¦After his time in Europe, he started working at the Pressman-Rubin Studio in Kansas City as an artist (Schwartz). While Disney was working in Kansas City he was co-workers with Ubbe Iwerks. A year after working at the studio, the two got laid off and moved onto bigger and better things. They created their own business called Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists. The company was not so successful and only last one month. The two friends stayed together as they passed through jobs. They worked at the Kansas City Film Ad Company drawing cartoons for movie theaters. Disney took a camera from the company to use for his â€Å"stop-action animation† with his original drawings. His continuous practice on his Laugh-O-Grams made them far more advanced than his studio work (Schwartz). Walt Disney made puppets of his characters for his films instead of drawing them so he could save time and make the process easier on himself and Iwerks (â€Å"Walt Disney Interviewed by Fletcher Markle†). After his boss at the Kansas City Film Ad Company turned down his idea of cartoons, Disney reached out to Margaret J. Winkler, a cartoon distributor in New York, about his Laugh-O-Grams. Winkler gladly agreed and Disney signed a contract and moved to New York City. He named his business â€Å"Disney Bros. Studio†, but quickly changed to â€Å"Walt Disney Studio† after Alice in Cartoonland was shown in theaters. Disney realized he and Iwerks could not handle all the work on their own soShow MoreRelatedWalt Disney : The Disney1338 Words   |  6 PagesWalt Disney is famous for his animated movies through the 20th century. It all started in the 1920s with a series Walt Disney directed consisting of seven fairy tales. Walt Disney is most famously known for his character Mickey Mouse, which appears first in Steamboat Willie, in 1928. It was the first Disney cartoon to be produced with synchronized sound. From this, an empire was created. The Walt Disney Company still produ ces cartoons to this day, but how did we get to the movies children watch todayRead MoreThe Success Of The Multi Million Dollar Disney Corporation Essay1395 Words   |  6 Pagesmulti-million dollar Disney corporation is undeniable. Whether it be through films, books, merchandise, or television advertisements, Disney has considerable impact on children’s lives. One of Disney’s primary influences has been on the construction of children’s perception on gender roles and gender expectations. The influence Disney has on young children has been bought to the attention of critics, who argue these films produce unhealthy, concealed messages to the most vulnerable viewers. Disney is aimed atRead MoreWalt Disney s Influence On The Entertainment Industry1939 Words   |  8 PagesWalt Disney was a very influential man to the entertainment industry. He made animation a whole new type of entertainment. Although Walt went through many struggles and problems, he pushed on an d eventually saw results for all his hard work. Many hardships got in Disney’s way such as unsupportive parents and even bankruptcy; Walt pushed on through, always creating, working hard, and persevering to accomplish his dream. Walter Elias Disney was born on December 5, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois. His fatherRead MoreAnalysis Of Disney And Von Braun1832 Words   |  8 PagesWith extreme backgrounds of science and art, these two men made each of their sixty five years impactful as individuals and collaborators. Disney had become interested in space in 1952, when four books were published with the title of â€Å"Man Will Conquer Space Soon.† Disney wanted to produce an entertaining way of presenting the facts to children, while raising awareness of the US space program. However, Disney’s team did not have the knowledge or expertise to design such content. The introductionRead MoreCase Study : Disney s Best Practices1310 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Customers In this step, Disney Institute tries to gain a deeper understanding of whatever organization they are hired to assess and help prosper. They get information of how the company works by having personal interviews as well as requesting hard data. With this information, the institute will see what tactic is necessary to make the company a successful one. 2. Adapt and Apply Disney’s Best Practices Disney Institute uses real-world examples from The Walt Disney Company to associate the businessRead More Walt Disney Essays1898 Words   |  8 Pages Disney Productions is one of the leading entertainment businesses, bringing tremendous profits not to mention the joy it brings many people. It has not always been this easy for Disney however. It took the mind of one man to bring it to what it is today, and that’s mans name is Walt Disney. Walt Disney’s life was devoted to the arts and entertainment almost from birth. However, Walt’s fortunes and fame didn’t take form until his creation of Mickey Mouse. Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901Read MoreAnalyzing The Five Business Segments That Make Up The Walt Disney Essay1483 Words   |  6 Pagesbusiness segments that make up The Walt Disney group and a brief description of each one and their revenue in 2014. Media Network: Media Networks focuses on broadcasting, radio and they own a few T.V Networks which include Disney/ABC Television Group and even ESPN. As well as this Disney also works on digital media, marketing and a few other departments. Media Networks for the year of 2014 was 21.15 billon dollars. Studio Entertainment: The Walt Disney studios was there in the beginning whenRead MoreExecutive Officer Of The Walt Disney2179 Words   |  9 PagesWith assets that include film, television, publishing, the internet, music, and recreation, Walt Disney is one of the world’s largest conglomerate in terms of revenue, making $14.28 billion in Quarter Three in 2016. They regularly find different and new innovative ways to promote and sell their brands through various media segments to have a revenue increase and it has helped Disney to successfully complete its mission to position itself as one of the world’s leader of entertainment. Robert A. IgerRead MoreA Strategic Management Case Study on the Walt Disney Company8543 Words   |  35 PagesProf. Emma Lina F. Lopez Introduction Company Background When brothers Walt and Roy Disney moved to Los Angeles in 1923, they went there to sell their cartoons and animated shorts. One could only  dream  that their name would one day be synonymous with entertainment worldwide. But then again, that is how The Walt Disney Company has made their fortunes over the last several decades: making â€Å"dreams† come true. The Disney brothers began creating countless cartoons (some successful and others notRead MoreI Am Enamored By The Man Who Made All Of It Possible3289 Words   |  14 Pagesborn. Walt was one of five children. He had three older brothers one of which he would later in life be business partners with. Roy and Walt Disney would eventually be Walt Disney Studios. In 1906 the Disney family moved to a 45 acre farm in Marceline Missouri. Walt learned about teamwork while working the farm. Disney farm is where he began to draw animals and nourish his imagination. At Benton Grammar School but showed great ability in art class .Benton Grammar school is where Disney met Walter

Participative Leadership Free Essays

string(198) " or make effective decisions themselves and the systems and procedures do not exist within the organisational environment as in the case of the Allied Machinery Company \(Muczyk and Reimann 1987\)\." Question Participative leadership style is always more effective than autocratic/directive leadership styles. Discuss. Executive Summary To say there has been an immense amount of research undertaken on the topic of leadership would be an understatement. We will write a custom essay sample on Participative Leadership or any similar topic only for you Order Now The theoretical and empirical research on leadership in the workplace covers a diverse range of theory and there has been much critique and discussion of the theories to date. This paper review will discuss the path-goal leadership theory and it’s application in an organisational setting. The first part of the report will look at the evolution of this theory and the underpinning elements of each leadership style. The second part will compare participative and directive leadership styles using examples to illustrate the relevant use of each style and necessity for leaders to be able to use both or a combination of the two. Table of Contents Introduction p. 4 Path-Goal Leadership Theoryp. 4 Participative vs. Directive Leadershipp. 6 Practical Implicationsp. 8 Conclusion p. 9 Reference Listp. 10 Introduction For decades the study of leadership has been a focus in management, psychology and organisational behaviour with â€Å"over 35,000 research papers, articles and books written† on the topic in an attempt to define leadership and understand which style best drives effective leadership (Killian 2007). In 1974 Stogdill said, â€Å"there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have tried to define the concept† (Yukl 1989, p. 251). A statement that is relatively true even 37 years on with many approaches to leadership still emerging and continued debate and discussion around the existing theories. A modern and fairly recent definition of leadership explains it as â€Å"influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organisations of which they are members† – a definition agreed upon by fifty four leadership experts from thirty eight countries (McShane, Olekalns Travaglione 2010). With so much research dedicated to the subject of leadership there are a vast array of theories and associated leadership styles including but not limited to: * Trait Theories * Contingency Theories * Situational Theories Behavioural Theories * Transformational Theories Each has their own unique approach and perspectives on what constitutes an effective leader however for the purpose of this report the focus will be on the path-goal theory and the leadership styles it encompasses. Path-Goal Leadership Theory The path-goal approach to leadership is one of several contingency theories. The contingency perspective is built upon the noti on that leaders choose their style to suit the situation and this contemporary model has had much noteworthy critique and testing over the years. Defined as an â€Å"expectancy theory of motivation that relates several leadership styles to specific employee and situational contingencies† ((McShane, Olekalns Travaglione 2010, p461), the theory suggests that a leader can have an influence on the performance, satisfaction and motivation of their subordinates which can be applied through all levels of an organisation. Evans and House first initiated support for the path-goal theory of leadership in the early 1970s following inconsistencies in the results of earlier research. A study by Evans (1970) of two organisations demonstrated a link between the behavior of leaders and the impact on the behavior and goal attainment of subordinates. In 1971 House presented a path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness derived from a path-goal theory of motivation, which posed a theory on the effects of leader behavior on subordinate satisfaction, motivation and performance. The study reconciled conflicting research that had previously been conducted on the topic and support of the hypothesis tested lead to further research and development of this theory. As illustrated below ((McShane, Olekalns Travaglione 2010, p463) the performance and satisfaction outcome of subordinates is a result of three components – leader behavior, environmental factors and subordinate contingencies. According to the theory are there four clearly defined styles of leader behaviour (House Mitchell 1974, House 1996): 1. Directive – the leader gives instructions about what, how when tasks need to be completed and how performance will be measured. Ideal for ambiguous or non-routine tasks. 2. Supportive – leaders provide psychological and social support and go out of their way to make work pleasant for employees. Used in stressful situations that may be unsatisfying or frustrating. 3. Participative – the leader shares decision making with the team and encourages and takes their opinions and suggestions into account when making a decision. When team members are autonomous, need control and clarity and are heavily involved in their work this style can be used. 4. Achievement Oriented – behavior that is directed towards encouraging employees to achieve their peak performance through challenging goals. Ideal in situations where employees are highly motivated and driven to succeed. The path-goal model is based on the assumption that each leadership style will be effective in different situations depending on the two variables outlined above – employee contingencies and environmental contingencies. A leader needs to be able to adapt to different situations by selecting the style that suits employee needs or using a combination. Not all leaders will naturally exhibit all four leadership styles above or be comfortable using them but under this model a leader would need to have the ability to demonstrate all posing a potential development needs in some situations. Participative vs. Directive Leadership The question posed of whether participative leadership is always more effective than participative leadership cannot be completely justified under the path-goal leadership model as the premise of this approach is that the leadership style applied is dependent upon the environmental and employee variables. While there is a widely shared belief amongst a lot of the literature that participative leadership has greater advantages over a directive approach, there are arguments for both and each has its potential strengths and weaknesses. In this next section the role and outcomes of a participative leader will be compared to that of a directive (or autocratic) leader using organisational examples to illustrate their uses. Participative leadership will not work if subordinates do not have the necessary skills and experience to enable them to contribute to decision-making or make effective decisions themselves and the systems and procedures do not exist within the organisational environment as in the case of the Allied Machinery Company (Muczyk and Reimann 1987). You read "Participative Leadership" in category "Papers" In this example the General Manager’s approach of using a participative or democratic leadership style, which had worked for him, previously was not appropriate in his new role as the subordinates were not used to operating this way and expected guidance and follow-up from their leader. If more of a directive approach had of been taken and subordinates given specific guidelines, had expectations setout and rules or procedures explained then one would expect the outcome to have been significantly different. The key points illustrated here are how important it is for a leader to assess the situational variables (employee and environmental) before choosing their leadership style and secondly the necessity for a leader to be able to flex between styles rather than relying only on their natural or preferred style. A potential challenge to this could be how comfortable managers are with using an alternate style. For example, one study reported that Australian managers dislike using a directive style and some would go to considerable lengths to avoid doing so (Avery Ryan 2002). The path-goal theory suggests that at times a leader may need to use a combination of leadership styles. In an interesting study on directive versus participative leadership in schools (Somech 2005) explores the effect of each style on school staff and makes several conclusions. A directive style can assist staff to challenge themselves and achieve high performance while a participative approach challenges through the sharing of knowledge however used together by leaders rather than as mutually exclusive styles they achieved a complementary result in terms of school effectiveness. Greiner (1973) also illustrates this point with an example of executives incorporating a few directive actions into their participative style to keep high performance goals in front of their teams. These are both great examples of using a combined approach of participative and directive leadership to maximise the result. Another area worthy of consideration in discussion of these two styles is the influence that demographics such as age, status, length of employment, gender and culture can have on choosing the most appropriate style. Sauer (2011) notes that for a new leader this is no correct style of leadership. In terms of leader status, the study suggests that when low status leaders use directive leadership or high status leaders use participative? leadership, the leaders are perceived as more self-confident and more effective. When comparing leadership across cultures it is also noted that participative leadership works better in some cultures rather then others (Den Hartog et al. , 2000). These examples highlights some other situational factors, potentially outside of the norm, that come into play when assessing the most effective style of leadership to pursue. Practical Implications The continued research into path-goal leadership theory and its application in the workplace highlights some reasonable considerations for leaders in engaging and motivating their subordinates. The literature suggests that participative and directive are the dominant styles and a great deal of the research highlights the benefits of a participative approach. What a lot of the research fails to look at is the negative outcomes if a participative approach is used in a situation that requires a directive approach as in the case of Allied Machinery used above. For practical application of the path-goal theory more focus needs to be placed on comparing the variance in outcomes of participative vs. directive leadership in a range of situations with varying employee and environmental. More importantly a combined approach should also be examined in this research. Conclusion There are many definitions of leadership in existence and varying opinions on the most effective theory and subsequent leadership style. The path-goal leadership theory has evolved over time since it was first proposed in the early 1970s and there has been ongoing critique and analysis of its validity, which in comparison to other contingency theories has held relatively strong. The path-goal theory highlights the key components that will impact the outcome – employee contingencies, environmental contingencies and leadership style. A leader needs to adapt their style to the situation and be able to flex between the four styles rather than relying on just one. The question as to whether participative leadership is always more effective than democratic leadership is not validated as this model illustrates the need for both either in isolation or as a combined approach. A participative or democratic approach relies on the team being engaged and motivated and is only effective if followers are willing and able to participate actively in the decision-making process, which is not always the case. There are so many variables that comes into play that neither of these styles can simply be labeled as the right choice for all situations. Reference List Dicksona, M. , Hartog, D. Mitchelsona, J. 2003, Research on leadership in a cross-cultural context: Making progress, and raising new questions, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 14, pp. 729-768. Evans, M. G. 1970, The effects of supervisory behavior on the path-goal relationship, Organisational Behavior and Human Performance Vol. 5, pp. 277-298. Gayle C. Avery, J. 2002, Applying situational leadership in Australia, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 21 pp. 242–262. Greiner, L. 1973, What managers think of participative leadership, Harvard Business Review, Vol. pp. 111-117. House, R. J. 971, A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 16, pp. 321-338. House, R. J. Mitchell, T. R. 1974, Path-goal theory of leadership, Journal of Contemporary Business, Vol. 3, pp. 81-97. House, R. J. 1996, Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 7, pp. 323-352. Huang, X. , Iun, J. , Liu, A. Gong, Y. 2010, Does participative leadership enhance work performance by inducing empowerment or trust? The differential effects on managerial and non-managerial subordinates, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 1, pp. 122-143. Killian, S. 2007, The ABC of Effective Leadership A Practical Overview of Evidence Based Leadership Theory, Australian Leadership Development Centre, viewed 7 September 2011 http://www. leadershipdevelopment. edu. au/SiteMedia/w3svc674/Uploads/Documents/Effective%20Leadership%20An%20Overview%20of%20Leadership%20Theory. pdf Lewin, K. Liippit, R. and White, R. K. 1939, Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates, Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 10, pp. 271-301. Muczyk, J. Reimann, B. 987, The Case for Directive Leadership, The Academy of Management Executive. Vol. 1, pp. 301-311. Sauer, S. J. 2011, Taking the Reins: The Effects of New Leader Status and Leadership Style on? Team Performance, Journal of Applied Psycholo gy, Vol. 96, pp. 574-87. Smech, A. 2005, Directive Versus Participative Leadership: Two Complementary Approaches to Managing School Effectiveness. Educational Administration Quarterly 2005, Vol. 41, pp. 777-800. Yukl, G. 1989, Managerial Leadership: A Review of Theory and Research, Journal of Management, Vol. 15, pp. 251-289. How to cite Participative Leadership, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

What is the Heinz Dilemma free essay sample

Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development changed the way psychologists and parents thought about the development of their children. Kohlberg expanded on Piaget’s theory of only 2 stages, to three levels and six stages total. He worked with groups of young children by interviewing and researching their answers to questions. These questions arose from fictional scenarios of everyday problems to decipher a child’s moral reasoning (Kim, 2013). One of the most well-known moral dilemmas is â€Å"Heinz Steals the Drug†. In summary, children had to decide whether a man should break the law to save his wife or not. Kohlberg did not so much care about the answers to the questions, but rather the reasoning behind them. After completing a self-interview and interview of two other individuals, I was able to see for myself the different levels of moral reasoning within a person based on Kohlberg’s Theory. When I first read the scenario to myself it seemed like a simple solution to a simple problem. We will write a custom essay sample on What is the Heinz Dilemma or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Heinz should save his wife. I did not realize the complexity of the situation until after having to state the reasoning behind my answer. I was astonished at the level of thought needed to answer efficiently. I decided that the reason Heinz should save his wife is because he loves her. Although it is against the law to steal, in this situation Heinz has an obligation to save the person he loves or else he will be devastated by it for the rest of his life. In a different situation were the person is a stranger, Heinz has no duty to save the person, making it more responsible to obey the law. I believed that this was the best explanation to the situation, until my first interview. I then realized I was not as morally developed as I had thought. The first person I interviewed was a female of age 38. She currently works as a research chemist for a small private company. I have known this woman for a while and was curious of her moral status. I was pleased with my choice in an interviewee because her answers surprised me. Within the first question asked I could tell our answers were going to be very different from one another. She responded quickly and confidently, proving that she is self–assured in her morality. This was much different reaction compared to my self-interview. I was stumped by some questions and it took me awhile to decide the best answer. She believed Heinz should steal the medicine for his wife, like myself, but she had a very different explanation as to why. She stated â€Å"Heinz should save his wife because she is dying and he has the resources to save her. † When it came to the other questions about different scenarios of the story, she answered the same exact way, â€Å"Even if he does not love her or she is a stranger or animal, he should save her because he has the resources to do so. † She also believed that people do not have to obey the law if it is not within their morals. This contradicted my thoughts on law. I believe there is specific situations in which laws may be broken, but they should be followed as much as possible. After asking her all of the questions, I could tell that she was in the sixth stage of moral development. This is the highest stage and known as Universal Principles. This means that her morals are based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. Even if they conflict with laws and rules, she follows her internalized principles of justice (Cherry, 2013). This is very different than my own stage as well as the next person I interviewed. Over the years of her life, her morals have grown and developed to a level where she does not take into account any other reasons for her decisions, other than her self-morals. I believe her age as well as life experiences have caused her to raise to this highest level. The second interview I chose to do was with a gentleman of the same age as myself. He is 19 years old and also a student. I chose this particular person due to the fact that we share the same age and occupation. I was curious to see whether gender made a difference in moral competency. Within the first three questions I knew he was on the same track as me and, in this case, gender did not make a difference. Almost all of his answers were parallel to mine as well as his reasoning. In summary, he believed that if you love someone you should do everything to save them. If not, then it is not your duty. After interviewing a stage six of moral development, it was easy to see that he nor I were fully morally developed. Every answer was driven by selfish reasoning. Also, this man stated that the law should try to be followed as closely as possible. There are only certain situations when the law should be broken. This proves that we are both in stage 5 of moral development. This stage is called Social Contract and Individual Rights. People of this stage take into account of differing values, opinions and beliefs. They believe law and order is necessary, but members of the society must agree on these standards. People of this stage also believe laws can be broken for necessary reasons and it does not make the action morally wrong (Cherry, 2013). At the stage of young adulthood, we both have not had enough life experiences to become fully morally developed. Using morals in real life situations helps to build experience and change the way one looks at situations. I thoroughly enjoyed interviewing for this assignment. It was fascinating seeing real life levels of moral development and examining why different people think different ways. I felt confident in the answers and explanations I gave in the self-interview, but could tell I am not fully evolved in the moral aspect. The questions became somewhat difficult to answer and made me think out of the box. When interviewing the other two examinees, I felt comfortable asking the questions, and became really curious to what their answers would be. Kohlberg’s approach to the Stages of Moral Development by using real life situation is an efficient way to categorize individuals. It is an important part to studying human development and how children gain moral reasoning.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolution

Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolution The Battle of Saratoga was fought September 19 and October 7, 1777, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). In the spring of 1777, Major General John Burgoyne proposed a plan for defeating the Americans. Believing that New England was the seat of the rebellion, he proposed cutting the region off from the other colonies by moving down the Hudson River corridor while a second force, led by Colonel Barry St. Leger, advanced east from Lake Ontario. Meeting at Albany, they would press down the Hudson, while General William Howes army advanced north from New York. British Plans An attempt to capture Albany from the north had been attempted the previous year, but the British commander, Sir Guy Carleton, had elected to withdraw after the Battle of Valcour Island (October 11) citing the lateness of the season. On February 28, 1777, Burgoyne presented his plan to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord George Germain. Reviewing the documents, he granted Burgoyne permission to move forward and appointed him to lead the army that would invade from Canada. Germain did so having already approved a plan from Howe that called for the British army in New York City to advance against the American capital at Philadelphia. Â   It is unclear whether Burgoyne was aware of Howes intentions to attack Philadelphia before he left Britain. Though Howe was later informed that he should support Burgoynes advance, he was not specifically told what this should entail. Additionally, Howes seniority precluded Burgoyne from issuing him orders. Writing in May, Germain told Howe that he expected the Philadelphia campaign to be concluded in time to assist Burgoyne, but his letter contained no specific orders. Burgoyne Advances Moving forward that summer, Burgoynes advance initially met with success as Fort Ticonderoga was captured and Major General Arthur St. Clairs command forced to retreat. Pursuing the Americans, his men won a victory at the Battle of Hubbardton on July 7. Pressing down from Lake Champlain, the British advance was slow as the Americans diligently worked to block the roads south. The British plan began to unravel in quick succession as Burgoyne became plagued by supply issues. To help remedy this issue, he dispatched a column led by Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum to raid Vermont for supplies. This force encountered American forces led by Brigadier General John Stark on August 16. In the resulting Battle of Bennington, Baum was killed and his predominantly Hessian command suffered over fifty percent casualties. The loss resulted in the desertion of many of Burgoynes Native American allies. Burgoynes situation was further worsened by news that St. Leger had turned back and that Howe had left New York to begin a campaign against Philadelphia. Alone and with his supply situation worsening, he elected to move south in an effort to take Albany before winter. Opposing his advance was an American army under the command of Major General Horatio Gates. Appointed to the position on August 19, Gates inherited an army that was rapidly growing due to the success at Bennington, outrage over the slaying of Jane McCrea by Burgoynes Native Americans, and the arrival of militia units. Gates army also benefited from General George Washingtons earlier decision to send north his best field commander, Major General Benedict Arnold, and Colonel Daniel Morgans rifle corps. Armies Commanders Americans Major General Horatio GatesMajor General Benedict ArnoldColonel Daniel Morgan9,000 growing to 15,000 men British Major General John Burgoyne7,200 declining to 6,600 men Battle of Freemans Farm On September 7, Gates moved north from Stillwater and occupied a strong position atop Bemis Heights, approximately ten miles south of Saratoga. Along the heights, elaborate fortifications were constructed under the eye of engineer Thaddeus Kosciusko which commanded the river and the road to Albany. In the American camp, tensions festered as the relationship between Gates and Arnold soured. Despite this, Arnold was given command of the left wing of the army and the responsibility for preventing the capture of heights to the west which dominated the Bemis position. Crossing the Hudson north of Saratoga between September 13-15, Burgoyne advanced on the Americans. Hampered by American efforts to block the road, heavy woods, and broken terrain, Burgoyne was not in position to attack until September 19. Seeking to take the heights to the west, he devised a three-prong attack. While Baron Riedesel advanced with a mixed British-Hessian force along the river, Burgoyne and Brigadier General James Hamilton would move inland before turning south to attack Bemis Heights. The third column under Brigadier General Simon Fraser would move further inland and work to turn the American left. Arnold and Morgan Attack Aware of British intentions, Arnold lobbied Gates to attack while the British were marching through the woods. Though preferring to sit and wait, Gates finally relented and permitted Arnold to advance Morgans riflemen along with some light infantry. He also stated that if the situation required, Arnold could involve more of his command. Moving forward to an open field on the farm of Loyalist John Freeman, Morgans men soon sighted the lead elements of Hamiltons column. Opening fire, they targeted the British officers before advancing. Driving back the lead company, Morgan was forced to retreat into the woods when Frasers men appeared on his left. With Morgan under pressure, Arnold funneled additional forces into the fight. Through the afternoon intense fighting raged around the farm with Morgans riflemen decimating the British artillery. Sensing an opportunity to crush Burgoyne, Arnold requested additional troops from Gates but was refused and issued orders to fall back. Ignoring these, he continued the fight. Hearing the battle along the river, Riedesel turned inland with most of his command. Appearing on the American right, Riedesels men rescued the situation and opened a heavy fire. Under pressure and with the sun setting, the Americans withdrew back to Bemis Heights. Though a tactical victory, Burgoyne suffered over 600 casualties as opposed to around 300 for the Americans. Consolidating his position, Burgoyne put off further attacks in the hope that Major General Sir Henry Clinton could provide assistance from New York City. While Clinton did raid up the Hudson in early October, he was not able to provide aid. In the American camp, the situation between the commanders reached a crisis when Gates did not mention Arnold in his report to Congress regarding the Freemans Farm battle. Devolving into a shouting match, Gates relieved Arnold and gave his command to Major General Benjamin Lincoln. Though granted a transfer back to Washingtons army, Arnold remained as more and more men arrived in camp. Battle of Bemis Heights Concluding the Clinton was not coming and with his supply situation critical Burgoyne called a council of war. Though Fraser and Riedesel advocated retreat, Burgoyne refused and they agreed instead upon a reconnaissance in force against the American left on October 7. Led by Fraser, this force numbered around 1,500 men and advanced from Freeman Farm to the Barber Wheatfield. Here it encountered Morgan as well as the brigades of Brigadier Generals Enoch Poor and Ebenezer Learned. While Morgan attacked the light infantry on Frasers right, Poor shattered the grenadiers on the left. Hearing the fighting, Arnold dashed from his tent and took de facto command. With his line collapsing, Fraser tried to rally his men but was shot and killed. Beaten, the British fell back to the Balcarres Redoubt at Freemans Farm and Breymanns Redoubt slightly to the northwest. Attacking Balcarres, Arnold was initially repulsed, but worked men around the flank and took it from behind. Organizing an attack on Breymanns, Arnold was shot in the leg. The redoubt subsequently fell to American assaults. In the fighting, Burgoyne lost another 600 men, while American losses were only around 150. Gates remained in camp for the duration of the battle. Aftermath The next evening, Burgoyne began withdrawing north. Halting at Saratoga and with his supplies exhausted, he called a council of war. While his officers favored fighting their way north, Burgoyne ultimately decided to open surrender negotiations with Gates. Though he initially demanded an unconditional surrender, Gates agreed to a treaty of convention whereby Burgoynes men would be taken to Boston as prisoners and permitted to return to England on the condition that they not fight in North America again. On October 17, Burgoyne surrendered his remaining 5,791 men. The turning point of the war, the victory at Saratoga proved key in securing a treaty of alliance with France.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

ACT Admission Ticket What It Is, How to Print, and What to Do If You Lose It

ACT Admission Ticket What It Is, How to Print, and What to Do If You Lose It SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you’re planning on taking the ACT, you may know that you’ll need an admission ticket (and photo ID) to get into the testing center. Because ACT, Inc. makes such a big deal about these tickets, figuring out how to get it just right can be one of the most stressful parts of registering for the test. But don’t worry- the process isn’t as complicated as it seems. This guide will walk you through exactly what the ACT admission ticket is, how to get one, and what to do if you lose yours(it’s not as bad you think!). What Is the ACT Admission Ticket? The admission ticket serves as proof that you are registered to take the ACT on a given day. The proctors won’t let you into the testing center without it.Your ACT ticketalso has helpful information about your testing center (for you) and any accommodations you might need (for your proctor). I've included a sample ticket below so you can see what it looks like. I've numbered the different sections of the ACT admissionticket, so that we can go through them one at a time. Photo: Your picture! More info on how to pick and upload one below. Test Info: This section indicates when and where you're testing and which version of the test you're taking. Matching Information: The information that ACT, Inc. will use to match you to your test. Be sure to enter it on your answer sheet exactly as it appears on the ticket. PersonalInfo: Your name and address. Test Center Messages: Information about what to do when you get to the testing center: where to park, how to find your room, etc. At the bottom of the page there is additional information, including your testing number and any accommodations you need. Why Do You Need an Admission Ticket? The ACT admission ticket shows that you are the person actually signed up to take the test- hence why it has a picture. The ticket is a relatively new requirement and is designed to make it harder for people to cheat by having someone else take the test in their place. Remember that you must bring it with you to the testing center or you won’t be allowed to take the ACT. How Do You Get an ACT Admission Ticket? The first step to getting an ACT admission ticket is registering for the test. If you haven’t already done so, youmight want to take a look at our step-by-step instructions, with images, forthe registration process. I would recommend registering online, but most of the following info applies even if you registered by mail, although, in that case, you should receive an admission ticket in the mail. During the registration process there are two main steps you need to complete to get your ACT admission ticket- I'll got through how to complete both of them. How to Upload a Photo Towards the end of the registration process, you’ll be asked to upload a photo. There are a lot of restrictions on what kind of photo you can use, and they can feel somewhat overwhelming. Here are ACT, Inc.’s guidelines: Your photo must be a clear image of ONLY you (not blurry, grainy or fuzzy) against a plain, background. The photo must be a full face-and-shoulders shot, squarely facing the camera. You must use a portrait, not landscape, photo that is correctly oriented. You must be facing the camera. You cannot wear dark glasses. If you wear a head covering daily for religious reasons, adjust it to provide a full-face view. I know that’s a lot, but don’t panic. Let’s break it down into a few key points: The photo should show your entire head and your shoulders- that’s all. You must be easily recognizable- the photo can’t be blurry or dark and you shouldn’t have anything obscuring your face. The photo should have a plain background. If you have a digital version of your school photo, just use that! Another good option is using a webcam to just snap a photo with your computer- as long as you do this in a well lit place, the photo quality will be fine. Otherwise, get a friend or family member to help you take a headshot with a phone or digital camera. Remember that the photo doesn’t need to be awesome, just recognizable- no one but your proctor and your school will see it. If you registered by mail, you will still need to either upload a photo or submit a hard copy. How to Print Your ACT Admission Ticket After completing the registration process and uploading a photo, you'll be asked if you want to print youradmission ticket or wait until later. Either is fine- you can access the ticketanytime through your ACT account. Only have a black and white printer? Don't worry about it. Your ACT ticket printout can be in either color or black and white, as long as the information is clearly visible. But What Should You Do If... ...You Lose Your Ticket? Don’t panic! This problem is easily solved: you can easily reprint your ACT admission ticket.Just go to the ACT website, sign in to your account, and print your ticket! You can use this methodeven if you registered by mail, but if for some reason you can’t print your ticket call ACT, Inc. at 319-337-1270.Keep in mind that calling at the very last minute won't do youmuchgood- if they need to send you a new ticket by mail it will probably take at least a week. ...You Realize that the Information on the Ticket Is Incorrect? Again, this problem is easily fixed. If you realize that your name is misspelled or your address is missing a number, just log into your account and click on "Make changes to your registration." Remember to reprint the ticket once you’ve made your changes, so it’s up-to-date. ...You Get to the Test Center and Don't Have Your Admission Ticket? You cannot take the test without your ticket, so you want to avoid this situation at all costs. The night before the test, gather everything you need for the test together and put it in one easily accessible place. If you’re prone to losing things (or just very paranoid), you can try: making a backup copy and putting it in the car. taping the ticket and your ID to your calculator. If you do end up at the test center with no ticket, you can try having a friend or family member who lives nearby print it out and bring it to you. But the proctors won’t wait, so again, do everything you can to make sure you have it. Key Facts to Remember About the ACT Admission Ticket Let's review some of important points you'll need to keep in mind about the ACT ticket: You must have your admission ticket to get into the test center. Print it out at least the night before, and make multiple copies if you often lose things. Your picture must be recognizable as you and it must have a plain background. You can reprint your ACT admission ticket at any time. Just log into your online ACT account. More Recommended Reading If you're feeling confusedabout the registration process, take a look atourstep-by-step walkthrough of how to sign up for the testand our guides to the best test date for you, the total cost of the ACT, how to cancel your registration, and how to decide whether to sendthe four free score reports. If, however, you're taking the test very soon, check outthese helpfultest day tips that can raise your ACT score even without time to practice. Finally, if you have a bit more time,you might want to read throughsome of our ACTprep materials. We have great guides for all foursections, including general strategies, study tips, and in depth skill reviews(there are links to each section on the right). Try starting with our guide to the 5 tips that you must use, which will get you thinking about the test in the right way. Disappointed with your ACT scores? Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Alex Heimbach About the Author Alex is an experienced tutor and writer. Over the past five years, she has worked with almost a hundred students and written about pop culture for a wide range of publications. She graduated with honors from University of Chicago, receiving a BA in English and Anthropology, and then went on to earn an MA at NYU in Cultural Reporting and Criticism. In high school, she was a National Merit Scholar, took 12 AP tests and scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and ACT. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on how to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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Friday, February 14, 2020

Fundamental framework of engaging in marketing communication Essay

Fundamental framework of engaging in marketing communication - Essay Example The paper tells that marketing communications entails all the messages as well as related media utilised in communicating with a market. It consists of promotion aspect in the marketing mix of four Ps: place, price, product, and promotion. Marketing communication is the art and science of communicating information, which an organisation wishes to divulge towards the public. Such information could be associated to a product’s marketing, talk concerning the launch of a new commodity, or even the community initiatives that the company assumes. Marketing communications aid in defining the relationship of a firm with its customers. Marketing communication, as an organisational unit, emphasises the strategic significance of such communication as well as its lasting impact upon consumers. The models of communication can assume a predictive guide though recognition of the unpredictability and autonomy of the consumers is the most important outcome. It is essential for effectiveness in the use of the various resources allocated to the tools of marketing communication. For achievement of this, a comprehensive understanding of the process of strategic planning of marketing communications is necessary. The most relevant issues entail the marketing communication tools’ role in influencing the choices of brands and how such brands could be effectively used in delivery of promotional messages. It is also relevant to understand how firms can identity the most effective media strategy to enhance maximisation of the population of the reached target audience and also boost the potential of processing and acting upon such communication messages.... JD retail shop has been supplying the United Kingdom with the greatest as well as the latest branded street style sourced from the leading brands around for more than thirty years. It has thousands of official stocks and JD exclusives from the top brands such as Adidas originals, Fila, Nike, Converse, McKenzie, Fred Perry, Lacoste, Carbrini, Reebok, Duffer of St. George, Goi Goi JD, and Timberland at all times. JD is famously known as â€Å"King of Trainers† and thus strives to supply the best brands in terms of footwear. It has the latest and best trainers for all people ranging from men to women and to kids (JD 2012). Critical Evaluation of Marketing Communications’ Role Effective plans of communication add value to firms as well as regularly make the variation between programs’ success or/and failure (Laric & Lynagh 2010). It is imperative to note that communication is the process of exchanging information between people via a general system of signs, behaviou r, and symbol. An effective communication plan aids in overcoming the obstacles in the market by creating a common language as well as framing the message (Kotler & Armstrong 2009). Such plans help in the organisation of key message hierarchy as well as pinpointing different specifics concerning the audience or target market in terms of delivery and timing (Fill 1999). Marketing consists of the strategising and implementing process of the different ideology, promotion, pricing, as well as distribution of a commodity or service as well as ideas to ensure that the needs, objectives, and wants of the customers and the enterprise from which the specific idea, product, or service comes from are well